**When do we use Paired-Sample T-Test?**

Paired-Sample T-Test is also known as **dependent T-Test**, **repeated-measures T-test **or **within-subjects T-test**. A Paired-sample t-test is used to analyse paired scores, specifically, we want to see if there is difference between paired scores.

**Example Scenario**

A new fitness program is devised for obese people. Each participant's weight was measured before and after the program to see if the fitness program is effective in reducing their weights.

In this example, our null hypothesis is that the program is not effective, i.e., there is no difference between the weight measured before and after the program. The alternative hypothesis is that the program is effective and the weight measured after is less than the weight measured before the program. The dataset can be obtained here.

In the data, the first column is the weight measured before the program and the second column is the weight after.

**Step 1**

Select "Analyze -> Compare Means -> Paired-Samples T Test".

A new window pops out. Drag the variable "Before" and "After" from the list on the left to the pair 1 variable 1 and variable 2 respectively, as shown below. Then click "OK".

**Step 2**

The results now pop out in the "Output" window.

**Step 4**

We can now interpret the result.

From A, since the p-value is 0.472, we reject the alternative hypothesis and conclude that the fitness program is not effective at 5% significant level.

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